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Forensic Document Examination System

CedarFox is a system for analyzing complex documents, particularly those that are handwritten. The system is primarily designed for interactive use by Forensic/ Questioned Document Examiners. It is also document image processing system for use with scanned documents. The system also can be used to archive documents and search them.

Software functionalities:

Handwriting Identification

CedarFox can be used to retrieve the closest document to a questioned document from a given set of known documents. The batch processing or identification (ID) functionalities of the system is used for writer identification.

Writer and Signature Verification

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By using a set of metrics, CedarFox can associate a measure of confidence whether two documents are written by the same individual or by different individuals. CedarFox allows you to select either the entire document or a specific region of a document in order to obtain the comparison. The comparison is based on macro features (which measure global characteristics such as slant, connectivity, etc), micro features (which are based on individual character shapes), and style features (e.g., shapes of character pairs, or bigrams). Two different modes of writer verification are available: (i) a questioned document is compared against a single known document (the basis of this comparison are statistics based on how much variation a person can have), and (ii) a questioned document is compared against "multiple known" documents. Here the system learns from the known documents about the writer's habits. At least four known documents have to be available to use this mode.

The two different modes for writer verification are also available for signature verification. In this case the input consists of signature images instead of images of handwriting.

Image Processing

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CedarFox has several image processing tools such as underline and rule-line removal, background removal, etc.

Handwriting Segmentation

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CedarFox is able to separate words of text in a handwritten document.


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CedarFox has several modalities for searching handwritten documents for the presence of key-words. Word spotting allows the user to select a word image as a query, which is used to find similar word images in a specified document. Another type of search allows the user to type in a word which is used to rank all words in the document (s) as to how likely the word matches the query.

Handwriting Recognition

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CedarFox has automatic character recognition capability. Word recognition with a pre-specified lexicon is also built-in. The user can also manually input character identities if the highest character recognition accuracy is desired for the purpose of writer verification/identification.

Legibility and Readability Analysis

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Word gap comparison and comparison with Palmer metrics is supported.

System Utilities

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CedarFox has user interfaces for scanning documents directly as well as for entering the results directly into spread-sheets and for printing intermediate results. A database access is also available for storing document meta-data.

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System Requirements: Windows Platform (XP, 2000, NT), RAM: 128 MB; 256 MB preferred). User setting of Virtual memory of 600 MB recommended.